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閱讀理解關于推理性問題解題技巧-2019年高起點英語復習資料-江蘇成考

江蘇成人高考網www.c-51.com 發布時間: 2018年12月01日

閱讀理解關于推理性問題解題技巧-2019年高起點英語復習資料-江蘇成考


推理性問題與細節性問題相似,也是對文章具體內容的判斷。但推理不但要求掌握文章所表達的字面含義,還要掌握一定的邏輯判斷能力及寫作技巧知識,從文章表面推出更深層含義,這部分往往出題分量大,難度大,出錯也最多,歸根結底還是對文章內容沒有做到真正的理解和掌握。

Inference類問題主要包括Significance和Communication Techniques兩大類。

1、Significance

文字表面往往沒有明顯反映作者的全部意圖,有些含義需要讀者從字里行間去體會,靠自己的邏輯推理能力去判斷,從上下文的聯貫及文中有關部分的暗示去明析作者隱含的意思。這類問題的命題方式有:

(1)The writer implies but not directly states that__________.

(2)It can be inferred from the passage that_________.

(3)The author strongly suggests that__________.

(4)It can be concluded from the passage that________.

(5)The passage is intended to__________.

(6)The writer indicates that__________.

Example

Nursing at Beth Israel Hospital produces the best patient care possible. If we were to solve the nursing shortage,hospital administration and doctors everywhere would do well to follow Beth Israel's example.

At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health ac-count that covers everything from his medical history to his emotion-al state. Then she writes a care plan centered on the patient's illness but which also includes everything else that is necessary.

The primary nurse stays with the patient through his hospitalization,keeping track with his progress and seeking further advice from his doctor. If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment ,it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. What the doctor at Beth Israel has in the primary nurse is a true colleague.

Nursing at Beth Israel also involves a decentralized (分散的)nursing administration;every floor,every unit is a self-contained organization. There are nurse managers instead of head nurses,in addition to their medical duties they do all their own hiring and dismissing,employee advising,and they make salary recommendations. Each unit's nurse decide among themselves who will work what shifts and when.

Beth Israel's nurse-in-chief ranks as an equal with other vice presidents of the hospital. She also is a member of the Medical Executive Committee,which in most hospitals includes only doctors.

It can be inferred from the passage that__________.

A)compared with other hospitals nurses at Beth Israel Hospital are more patient

B)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries

C)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries

D)compared with other hospitals nurses have to work longer hour at Beth Israel Hospital

本題要求考生判斷4個選項中哪一個是根據文章可以推斷出的結論,要求考生根據文章內容作出合理的推斷。從本題所提供的4個選項來看,文章并未談及護士的“耐心”(A);也未談及護士的“工資待遇”(C),只是說到護士的工資提升要由各科室推薦;更未涉及護士的“工作時間長短”(D)),文章的第一段最后一句才是得出正確答案的依據,這句的意思是:“如果我們確要解決護理工作不足的問題,那么各地醫院的行政部門和醫生最好還是效法一下Beth Israel醫院”,主句的虛擬語氣也說明這一點:迄今為止還未做到。由此可以推斷:①護理不充分是一個應該解決的問題;②這個問題普遍存在,否則就沒有必要要求各地醫院行政部門和醫生效法這家醫院的做法。因此本題的正確答案為B),本題屬于局域型問題的間接性問題,這類問題是考生出錯最多的題型。在做這類問題時,切忌從篇章的個別句子中尋找答案,而應把目光放在全篇的理解上:作者寫這篇文章的目的是什么,針對什么問題,如何解決等。有許多考生可能都有這種體驗:有的問題,第一遍閱讀時做對了,第二遍再細讀后,又改錯了。這就是因為他們在讀第二遍時注意了對篇章的個別句于的推敲,而忽視了整篇文章的大意。

2、Communication Techniques

文章中的每一句話都有它的作用和目的,都是為作者的寫作而服務的。有的是下層意思的鋪墊,有的是上旬話的結果,互相襯托,互相聯系。四級閱讀中常常就技巧性問題提問,測試讀者對文章是否正確理解。這類題的命題方式有:

(1)The fact . . . is mentioned by the author to show _________.

(2)The author achieves his purpose by depending mainly upon.

(3)The writer talks about . . . in order io_________ .

(4)In discussing . . . ,the author _________.

(5)The author's statement about . . . is a . . . for . . .

Example :

If women are mercilessly exploited year after year,they have only themselves to blame. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion,they are al-ways taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of the change of fashion. When you come to think of it,only a woman is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear. Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste. Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn. Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way,waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Skirts are lengthened or shortened,necklines are lowered or raised,and so on.

No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes any thing really important to society. Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth,comfort and durability. They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort,as long as they look right. There can hardly be a man who hasn't at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day,or delicately picking her way through deep snow in high- heeled shoes.

When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion,the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes,one wonders,reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability?Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability?That is for you to decide .To the writer,the fact that women alter their old-fashioned dresses is seen as_________ .

A)a waste of money

B)waste of time

C)an expression of taste

本題問題是:女士們把過了時的衣服改來改去,在作者看來是“浪費金錢”(A));是“(女士對服裝的)喜好(品味)的表現”(C));是“(女士們)創造性的表現”(D));還是(B))所說的“浪費時間”。根據第二段所說的“waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have.”(Para.2,Line 4~5,答案應選B)


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